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Far From Rome Near To God Pdf Free

Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 with the temporary capital in Florence. That year Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III. French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control. In 1870 the French troops were withdrawn due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Italian troops were able to capture Rome entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Pope Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican. In 1871 the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome.[67] In 1870 the population of the city was 212,000, all of whom lived with the area circumscribed by the ancient city, and in 1920, the population was 660,000. A significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area.

Far From Rome Near To God Pdf Free

Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals.[113] The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. The most notable of these are the Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill, comprising some 1.8 km2 (0.7 sq mi). The Villa Sciarra is on the hill, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. In the nearby area of Trastevere, the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden ('roseto comunale'). Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana, close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Overlooking Piazza del Popolo and the Spanish Steps are the gardens of Pincio and Villa Medici. There is also a notable pine wood at Castelfusano, near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin, including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.

Rome has an extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff, a soft volcanic rock, outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome.

Rome contains many pontifical universities and other institutes, including the British School at Rome, the French School in Rome, the Pontifical Gregorian University (the oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design, the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, the Link Campus of Malta, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome is also the location of two American Universities; The American University of Rome[134] and John Cabot University as well as St. John's University branch campus, John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago and Temple University Rome, a campus of Temple University.[135] The Roman Colleges are several seminaries for students from foreign countries studying for the priesthood at the Pontifical Universities.[136]Examples include the Venerable English College, the Pontifical North American College, the Scots College, and the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome.

In June 1097 the crusaders and the Greeks took one of the emperor's key objectives, the formidable walled city of Nicaea, 120 miles from Constantinople, although in the aftermath of the victory some writers reported Frankish discontent at the division of booty. The crusaders moved inland, heading across the Anatolian plain. A large Turkish army attacked the troops of Bohemond of Taranto near Dorylaeum. The crusaders were marching in separate contingents and this, plus the unfamiliar tactics of swift attacks by mounted horse archers, almost saw them defeated until the arrival of forces under Raymond of Toulouse and Godfrey of Bouillon saved the day. This hard-won victory proved an invaluable lesson for the Christians and, as the expedition went on, the military cohesion of the crusader army grew and grew, making them an ever more effective force.

Article 8th: The Navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the Subjects of Great Britain and the Citizens of the United States.

The oldest artistic representation of syphilis is considered one on a Peruvian jug dating back to VIth century, depicting a mother suffering from syphilis holding a child in her arms; the mother shows a saddle nose and superior incisive teeth with notches on their free margins. The piece belongs to a collection of jugs also encompassing two jugs illustrating leprosy and leishmaniasis [19].

Shown here is a depiction of the murder by Irish Catholics of approximately one hundred Protestants from Loughgall Parish, County Armagh, at the bridge over the River Bann near Portadown, Ulster. This atrocity occurred at the beginning of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Having held the Protestants as prisoners and tortured them, the Catholics drove them "like hogs" to the bridge, where they were stripped naked and forced into the water below at swordspoint. Survivors of the plunge were shot.

Could the civil and religions freedom that America stands for be quickly eroding away?Illustration Pacific Press Publ. Assoc.Romanism is now regarded by Protestants with far greaterfavor than in former years. In those countries where Catholicism is not in theascendancy, and the papists are taking a conciliatory course in order to gaininfluence, there is an increasing indifference concerning the doctrines thatseparate the reformed churches from the papal hierarchy; the opinion is gainingground that, after all, we do not differ so widely upon vital points as hasbeen supposed, and that a little concession on our part will bring us into abetter understanding with Rome. The time was when Protestants placed a highvalue upon the liberty of conscience which had been so dearly purchased. Theytaught their children to abhor popery and held that to seek harmony with Romewould be disloyalty to God. But how widely different are the sentiments nowexpressed! GC 563.1

A well-known writer speaks thus of the attitude of the papalhierarchy as regards freedom of conscience, and of the perils which especiallythreaten the United States from the success of her policy: GC 564.3

Christ gives no example in His life for men and women toshut themselves in monasteries in order to become fitted for heaven. He hasnever taught that love and sympathy must be repressed. The Saviour's heartoverflowed with love. The nearer man approaches to moral perfection, the keenerare his sensibilities, the more acute is his perception of sin, and the deeperhis sympathy for the afflicted. The pope claims to be the vicar of Christ; buthow does his character bear comparison with that of our Saviour? Was Christever known to consign men to the prison or the rack because they did not payHim homage as the King of heaven? Was His voice heard condemning to death thosewho did not accept Him? When He was slighted by the people of a Samaritanvillage, the apostle John was filled with indignation, and inquired:"Lord, wilt Thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, andconsume them, even as Elias did?" Jesus looked with pity upon Hisdisciple, and rebuked his harsh spirit, saying: "The Son of man is notcome to destroy men's lives, but to save them." Luke 9:54, 56. Howdifferent from [571] the spirit manifested by Christis that of His professed vicar. GC 570.2

As the papacy became firmly established, the work of Sundayexaltation was continued. For a time the people engaged in agricultural laborwhen not attending church, and the seventh day was still regarded as theSabbath. But steadily a change was effected. Those in holy office wereforbidden to pass judgment in any civil controversy on the Sunday. Soon after,all persons, of whatever rank, were commanded to refrain from common labor onpain of a fine for freemen and [575] stripes in the case of servants.Later it was decreed that rich men should be punished with the loss of half oftheir estates; and finally, that if still obstinate they should be made slaves.The lower classes were to suffer perpetual banishment. GC 574.3

The decrees of councils proving insufficient, the secularauthorities were besought to issue an edict that would strike terror to thehearts of the people and force them to refrain from labor on the Sunday. At asynod held in Rome, all previous decisions were reaffirmed with greater forceand solemnity. They were also incorporated into the ecclesiastical law andenforced by the civil authorities throughout nearly all Christendom. (SeeHeylyn, History of the Sabbath, pt. 2, ch. 5, sec. 7.) [576]GC 575.3

A striking illustration of Rome's policy toward those whodisagree with her was given in the long and bloody persecution of theWaldenses, some of whom were observers of the Sabbath. Others suffered in asimilar manner for their fidelity to the fourth commandment. The history of thechurches of Ethiopia and Abyssinia is especially significant. Amid the gloom ofthe Dark Ages, the Christians of Central Africa were lost sight of andforgotten by the world, and for many centuries they enjoyed freedom in theexercise of their faith. But at last Rome learned of their existence, and theemperor of Abyssinia was soon beguiled into an acknowledgment of the pope asthe vicar of Christ. Other concessions followed. [578] An edictwas issued forbidding the observance of the Sabbath under the severestpenalties. (See Michael Geddes, Church History of Ethiopia, pages 311,312.) But papal tyranny soon became a yoke so galling that the Abyssiniansdetermined to break it from their necks. After a terrible struggle theRomanists were banished from their dominions, and the ancient faith wasrestored. The churches rejoiced in their freedom, and they never forgot thelesson they had learned concerning the deception, the fanaticism, and thedespotic power of Rome. Within their solitary realm they were content toremain, unknown to the rest of Christendom. GC 577.3


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